* Unique vitamin and minor and trace element complex for establishing and replacing substances important to marine invertebrates, including corals, clams, and their allies; these substances are particularly important to biological reactions. * Does not contain minor or trace elements not expressly known to be utilized by marine organisms or take place in chemical interactions. * Vitamins are present in ratios found in the tissues of filter-feeding marine invertebrates. * Minor and trace elements are present in natural seawater ratios. * Composed of purified water and ultra-high purity materials. * Formulated by a marine scientist. Technical Background: KŌRALLE-VM provides a host of minor and trace elements found by oceanographers to exhibit non-conservative behavior in seawater (meaning that they are depleted by biological and chemical reactions taking place within the photic zone) and that are safe for human handling. Elements are present in natural seawater ratios (i.e. the ratios in which they are present in seawater). Since they are not depleted by biological nor chemical interactions, no minor or trace elements that are not expressly needed by aquatic organisms are present in this product; this includes unnecessary elements such as lithium, rubidium, and molybdenum. Additionally, a full-complement of vitamins are present in the same ratios found in the tissues of filter-feeding marine invertebrates, organisms that extract plankton from the surrounding water and gain their nutritional benefit, and which are in turn consumed by many reef inhabitants. This logical blend of vitamins and minerals is of benefit to all marine aquarium inhabitants. Of the detectable elements in seawater, 11 are minor elements and 52 are trace elements. Between the two groups, at least 13 elements appear to be expressly-required for the growth of primary producers such as algae, and an additional 18 are either incorporated into living tissue/skeletal material or undergo chemical interactions that cause their depletion in surface waters. These elements are important to a number of enzymatic and vitamin-synthesis reactions for plants and animals alike; additionally, they influence pigmentation, and therefore coloration, of various organisms. Iodine, though an important trace element, is not provided by this product but instead appears in a separate supplement as a result of rapid usage relative to other trace and minor elements in marine environments. Instructions and Guidelines: Basic: Shake well before using. Add 5 ml (1 capful) per 25 US-gallons of water in the aquarium system weekly for the first four weeks of use; then, gradually increase the dosage to 10 ml per 25 US-gallons per week if desired. When used in this fashion, 250 ml treats up to 1,250 US-gallons (4,732 L). Advanced: Shake well before using. Begin by adding 5 ml (approximately 40 drops or 1 capful) of KŌRALLE-VM per 25 US-gallons of water weekly for the first four weeks of use; this corresponds to adding approximately 4 drops per 20 US-gallons each day. Then, gradually increase the weekly dosage to 10 ml per 25 US-gallons over the following four weeks and maintain this dosage. [Note: if using KŌRALLE-VM in conjunction with Brightwell Aquatics RĒPLENISH and/or VĪTAMARIN-M, decrease dosages of those products by 50%.] Starting at a low dosage will not cause any harm to the livestock, and will enable you to notice subtle changes in the appearance of the system that indicate the effectiveness and need for the product. Daily dosing maintains more stable concentrations (and a more natural environment) than dosing weekly, in which the concentration of elements spikes just after dosing and then gradually decreases throughout the course of the week. Vitamins and trace elements are important to biological reactions taking place inside all living organisms, however they are present and required in very low concentrations. Caution: Keep out of reach of children. Not for human consumption. Ingredients: Purified water, Barium chloride, Sodium metavanadate, Zinc sulfate, Nickel chloride, Chromium chloride, Sodium feredetate, Manganese chloride, Ascorbic acid, Niacin, dl-a-tocopherol acetate, Calcium pantothenate, Thiamine hydrochloride, Riboflavin, Pyridoxine hydrochloride, Cholecalciferol, Vitamin-A propionate, Cyanocobalamin, Folic acid, Biotin, Menadione dimethylpyrimidinol.