Brightwell Aquatics Potasion-P -Powdered Potassium Solution for Marine Aquaria * Highly-concentrated ionic potassium solution. * Provides potassium, an important component of aragonite (the mineral secreted as skeletal material by corals and other reef-building marine organisms), complexed into pigments that enhance blue coloration of some small-polyp stony corals, important to proper neurological function, and depleted in marine aquaria by livestock. * 80,000 ppm K; considerably stronger and more economical than competing potassium products. * May be used to combat potassium depletion that often accompanies the use of zeolite-based filtration methods employed to maintain ultra-low-nutrient aquaria. * Formulated by a marine scientist. Technical Overview In natural seawater, potassium is a non-conservative major element with a concentration slightly lower than that of calcium (~399 ppm vs. ~413 ppm, respectively). It is a component of aragonite, and regular dosing has, within the past several years, been implicated in improving the blue coloration of numerous varieties of small-polyp stony corals; the benefits of potassium supplementation are potentially two-fold, then: provision of an element that is 1.) incorporated into the skeletal material of corals and other reef-buidling organisms for purposes of growth, and 2.) incorporated into pigments that (presumably in the presence of adequate ionic iron) enhance blue coloration of small-polyp stony corals. The importance of potassium to marine organisms is most apparent when beginning to dose it in aquaria with depleted potassium concentrations and/or in which the sea salt mixture used is potassium-deficient; in such cases, changes in the appearance of many corals may be observed within the first weeks of regular dosing. Maintaining potassium within a range of 390 - 410 ppm is sufficient for long-term health, growth, and coloration of corals when all other physical and chemical requirements are met. The rate at which potassium is extracted from the water is determined by the stocking density of potassium-depleting livestock, characteristics of lighting and method(s) of filtration employed, and other biological, physical, and chemical conditions; therefore, each aquarium will have different requirements for the rate of potassium supplementation. Once the rate of potassium uptake in the aquarium has been determined (see opposite), the proper dosing rate of this product can be easily calculated. It is recommended that a quality salt mix with the proper (not augmented) alkalinity and concentrations of major, minor, and trace elements be used to establish natural seawater parameters in marine aquaria, providing a stable ionic foundation on which to build. Instructions and Guidelines: Note that the natural seawater concentration of potassium is ~399 ppm; maintaining the potassium concentration in marine aquaria as closely to this value as possible is recommended. Basic: Shake product well before using. Add 5 ml (1 capful) of product per 50 US-gallons of aquarium water every other day or as needed to maintain the potassium concentration within a range of 390 - 410 ppm. When used in this fashion, 250 ml treats up to 2,500 US-gallons (9,464 L). Advanced: Determine the potassium concentration in the aquarium using an accurate test kit before supplementing. Shake this product well before each use. Each ml of Potassion will increase the concentration of potassium (“[K+]”) in 1 US-gallon (3.785 L) of water by approximately 21 ppm. If the initial [K+] in the aquarium is below 390 ppm, add this product at the maximum rate of 10 ml per 20 US-gallons daily until the potassium concentration measures between 390 - 410 ppm, then dose daily or weekly as needed (see below). Always try to maintain the [K+] within a range of +/-10 ppm. To determine the dosing rate of this product once the desired [K+] has been acquired, measure the daily rate of potassium uptake (i.e. the decrease in potassium) in your aquarium by measuring the [K+] at the same time each day over a one- to two-week period. To determine the daily dosing rate (preferable to weekly dosing) for potassium maintenance: estimate the volume of water in the entire aquarium system; divide the daily decrease in [K+] by 21; multiply this number by the volume of water in the system to get the daily dosage required (ml) to maintain a stable [K+]. Daily dosing maintains a more stable [K+] (and more natural environment) than dosing weekly, in which the [K+] spikes just after dosing and then gradually decreases throughout the course of the week. Caution: Keep out of reach of children. Not for human consumption. Guaranteed Analysis: Potassium (min) 2,366 mg/oz. (80,000 ppm) Ingredients: Purified water, Potassium sulfate, Potassium chloride.