* Highly-concentrated vitamin-C solution. * Buffered; will not impact pH when used as directed. * Stronger than competing products. * Vitamin-C is associated with improved tissue growth and with aiding the immune system. * Intended to provide benefits to all aquarium inhabitants. * Well-suited to use in coral propagation. * Requires no refrigeration. * Composed of purified water and ultra-high purity ingredients. * Formulated by a marine scientist. Technical Background The benefits of vitamin-C to aquatic organisms are largely related to improved tissue growth, particularly after recently-sustained injury or illness. Corals and their allies, in particular, have been observed to benefit tremendously from regular controlled dosage of vitamin-C by increasing their rate of soft tissue growth; this aspect is of particular interest to hobbyists and researchers involved with coral propagation, in which coral tissue is damaged during the process of splitting colonies and/or individual polyps. Grow-out systems regularly dosed with vitamin-C also tend to have improved growth rates when compared to control systems with identical environmental conditions. These benefits are believed to be a result of the positive impact that vitamin-C has on the immune system; this benefit translates to fishes as well as to the remainder of invertebrates maintained in marine aquaria. Vitamins are compounds required in minute concentrations for vital metabolic reactions; the amounts of vitamins required for a given species varies. Short-term vitamin deficiencies can typically be tolerated by most organisms, however long-term deficiencies tend to result in abnormalities, poor health, and eventually even death of the specimen. Conversely, if severely overdosed, ingested vitamins can have a negative impact on a specimen by way of toxicity, though the impact is unlikely to be permanent. Decreasing the vitamin dosage typically results in full recovery of the affected specimen. For these reasons, it is recommended that Vītamarin-C be utilized either as a means of delivering vitamins to aquarium inhabitants through food or by direct addition to the water, but not both except as noted on opposite panel when using with organisms that have sustained tissue damage. Vītamarin-C does not require refrigeration, however storage in a cool, shaded area will prolong the activity of the vitamins. Refrigeration will maximize the shelf-life of the product. Instructions and Guidelines If using to fortify food (recommended): Place food in a clean container such as a small bowl or cup and add only enough Vītamarin-C to saturate. Allow at least 5 minutes to elapse before feeding, enabling adequate time for the vitamins to become thoroughly absorbed by the food. Liquid food suspensions may be fortified by adding 1 ml (approximately 8 drops) Vītamarin-C per 10 ml of food suspension; stir to mix and allow 5 minutes to elapse before feeding. Maximum benefit of any liquid food suspension is achieved when the food is target-fed to the intended organisms rather than poured into a stream of water and allowed to disperse randomly throughout the aquarium. If adding directly to aquarium water: Begin by adding 2 ml (approximately 16 drops) of Vītamarin-C per 20 US-gallons of water weekly for the first four weeks of use; this corresponds to adding approximately 2 drops per 20 US-gallons each day. Then, gradually increase the weekly dosage to 4 ml per 20 US-gallons over the following four weeks and maintain this dosage. [Note: if using Vītamarin-C in conjunction with Brightwell Aquatics Vītamarin-M, decrease dosages by 50%.] Starting at a low dosage will not cause any harm to the livestock, and will enable you to notice subtle changes in the appearance of the system that indicate the effectiveness and need for the product. Note that doubling the dosage of Vītamarin-C is acceptable when fortifying food meant for organisms appearing to be in poor health, including fishes and invertebrates. Maintain the increased dosage only as long as is deemed necessary, and observe water quality carefully at all times, making adjustments as needed. No medicinal claims are made for Vītamarin-C, however vitamin-C has been consistently observed to have a positive impact on immune systems, in general. Caution: Keep out of reach of children. Not for human consumption. Guaranteed Analysis Ascorbic acid (C) (min): 1,500 mg/oz. Ingredients Purified water, Ascorbic acid, Buffering agents.